Water stress is a situation in which per capita demand of fresh water exceeds per capita water availability. The reason is, it differs as per geographical & man-made conditions.
As per NITI Aayog’s composite water management index, 45% Indians are facing severe water stress i.e. around 600 million people by 2020. 9 out of 12 major cities will lose its ground water.
Different manifestation of water stress :-
- Lack of water availability.
- Polluted water.
- Unequal distribution of water.
Different regions of India with different water stress
Factors contributing different region different water stress:-
1. Geographical variation
2. Climatic condition
3. River drainage System
4. Intensity of agriculture
5. Population density
6. Level of industrialization & urbanization
7. Water management system
8. Extreme weather situation like cyclone & climate change.
Water stress in different regions of their reasons :-
Man Made Reason
Northern Himalayan region
1) Earthquakes, floods
1) Melting of glacier
1) Unpredictabilty of monsoon
1) Industrial pollution
North East India
1) Narrow basin & steep slopes.
North West & Central Plateau region
1) Less precipitation from monsoon
1) Leeward side of Western Ghats.
1) Plateau region. So, less ground
Coastal & island region
1) Ocean acidification
1) Extreme cyclones like Vayu, Fani
1) Global warming
1) Reclamation of wetlands
Successful Case Study
Afforestation, Reclamation of ponds, agro-climatic regionalization in Hiware Bazar in Maharashtra under Anna Hazare revived local ecology and water level.
Steps needed to be taken :-
1. Watershed management
2. Compulsory rain water harvesting as mandated in Chennai.
3. Proper sewage treatment plan.
4. Organic farming & Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) in Andhra Pradesh.
5. Revival of traditional practices like Taanka (Rajasthan), Ahar Pyne (Bihar) etc.
6. Sustainable urbanization like SPONGE city concept of China.
In this direction, schemes like National Water mission & Jal Jeevan mission can be fruitful.